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Crawling through Cybersecurity

My last class was American Government. Talk about a very apropos topic at this time in our political climate. It was a great class and actually very difficult. I used to detest U.S.  history many a year ago when I was in high school. I preferred to learn about world history and this was because massive wars was a far more interesting topic to me back then. This changed at some point and I became a bit obsessed with United States history over the years. From a historical point of view, this last class was pretty much within the realm of my interests.

I was not expecting to learn as much as I have. Our bicameral system and all of the checks and balances I previously heard about and grew up kind of knowing about finally sunk home. Our system of government and our Constitution are a marvel.

I started to think about policies for my final paper and I wanted something relevant to my field of study. My final paper was on cybersecurity, in particular, the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002 (FISMA). I wanted to apply the Constitution to the history of our defense since World War II.

I talked about the history of our defense from using the Constitution directly and I went to the Federalist Papers and I discussed our isolationist attitude until World War II where we began to update our defense with the National Security Act of 1947 which shifted our focus to be more global.

I then moved forward into the Computer Security Act of 1987. This led me down the path of the Federal Information Security Amendments act of 2002 and then finally made it around to 2014 FISMA.

My biggest arguments were regarding the roll-up of the military to Congress and how FISMA rolls up through the Executive branch via the Department of Homeland Security and this could cause conflicts with our entire checks and balances process. We have several different offices and departments focusing on cybersecurity including the CIA, FBI, and the DOD.

Below I listed a few references I had used for the class.

My final paper got a perfect score. The final grade for the class is an “A”.


Computer Security Act, 145 Cong. H.R. § 271 (1987).

Department of Homeland Security. (2018). DHS Publications. In U.S. Department of Homeland Security Cybersecurity Strategy. Retrieved from

Federal Information Security Amendments Act, 44 Cong. H.R. § 35 (2002).

Federal Information Security Modernization Act, 160 Cong. S. § 2521 (2014 & Suppl. 2014).

Madison, J. (1787, November 23). The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection. New York Packet. Retrieved from

Madison, J. (1788, February 12). The Apportionment of Members Among the States. New York Packet. Retrieved from

National Security Act, 61 STAT. 496 S., H.R. § (1947).

U.S. Const. art. I, § 8.

U.S. Const. art. IV, § 4.

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